The Hour of Temptation
The seven churches of Revelation 2-3 were historical churches, but also have advice for all believers and context for us today and the future. Each letter explicitly states, “he that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.” While written to one church historically, it uses churches plural and most of us have ears to hear or eyes to read the message being spoken so each letter is clearly for everyone. While they also had a fulfillment in their time, the temptations to lead us away from Christ and the labor, trials and pursecutions to remain in Him are not bounded by time in this age and I believe we can see the spiritual struggles in the historical accounts and test ourselves today to ensure we also do not fall into that spirit of error.
Revelation actually begins with an association of these seven churches to seven golden candlesticks, which I believe is the symbolism behind the menorah and the relationship of the oil feeding the lamp to create the light. This is the bride being filled with the Holy Spirit producing the light by which she shines in a dark world, not through herself but through the Spirit of God within producing good fruit evident to the world.
I want to focus on two of those letters to the seven churches in Revelation that I believe speak to a future time of deception, temptation and trying of the world and the warnings they include as well as the promises by faith we should keep our hope in. God has not left us in darkness, we are His friends and He has let us know what to look for and what is coming by His Word. 1 Thessalonians 5:1-6 | John 15:14-17 Yeshua makes a point when asked about the sign of His coming and the end of the world to not be deceived regarding false Christs. Matthew 24:3-5 | Mark 13:3-6 | Luke 21:7-8 So I believe it is imperative that we approach God’s Word in prayer and relationship with Him and the Holy Spirit as our translator, accepting God’s Word as written and bringing to mind that Word and rightly dividing its Truth. This must be done individually, but I pray what follows spurs your own search of God’s Word and its Truths. Acts 17:11
In the past, I glossed over this passage relating it more to the pre-wrath perspective of the catching away of the Bride and escape from God’s wrath. However, temptation is being drawn into doing something wrong, an enticement to sin. This is the case with the Greek G3986 peirasmos translated temptation, or hour of temptation. This passage also uses the Greek G3985 peirazō, To try or to test ones faith. These are related in that going through temptation is a trying of our trust in God ultimately. I wanted to do a word study on these terms to see the context in which they were used in the past to better understand what temptation the church of Philadelphia is told they will be kept from.
Temptations of Christ
Just before His ministry, Yeshua spent 40 days and 40 nights in the wilderness fasting. He was hungry and was tempted, or tried, by Satan to turn the rocks into bread, but He responded that man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. The temptation was temporary sustenance of the physical body in place of eternal sustenance of the soul. Yeshua called Himself the bread of life. John 6:31-71 It’s interesting that this passage reveals it was hard for many to hear and some stopped following Him at this point. I believe in John 6:63 Yeshua clarifies this physical eating and drinking to be spiritual in nature, accepting the sacrifice and receving eternal life, what believers symbolize in communion to this day.
He was tempted a second time by the devil, quoting Psalm 91:11-12 to use His status as the Son of God to prevent any harm from coming to Him, being saved by the angels when casting Himself from the pinnacle of the temple. He responded not to tempt the Lord your God. Yeshua knew His role as He mentioned in the above passage. He came from heaven to do the will of His Father, who gave His only begotten Son that whoever believed in Him, though they were dead, would live. John 3:16 His whole mission coming to earth was the opposite of what the devil was offering Him. The temptation was the salvation from physical death.
He was shown the kingdoms of the world and offered by the devil to be given them if He bowed down and worshipped him, but He responded that it’s written we shall worship the Lord God and only serve Him. This is of course the goal of the devil to be like the Most High. Isaiah 14:12-15 The temptation was rejection of the eternal God to worship the devil in return for temporary rule of the physical kingdoms.
So the temptations Christ went through prior to His ministry as a trial seemed to have to do with putting off the spiritual for the physical, like Esau giving his birthright to Jacob for a meal (Genesis 25:29-34 | Hebrews 12:14-17), escaping physical harm, or worshipping a false god, thereby rejecting the one True God.
Temptation and Trying in History
Hebrews 11 is a great walk through of the faith fo many from the Old Testament. Ultimately faith is made evident to others when proven in temptations that they remain steadfast throughout. This faith kept strong through trials and tribulations because they believe God and as for all of us it will be counted for us as righteousness. It’s important to recognize even though their stories don’t use these two words, two examples where people were tried and proven faithful.
One of the great stories in the Bible of putting to proof is that of Job. The Greek words used in Revelation 3:10 don’t appear in Job, but it is good context for the idea of being tried. When Satan comes before the Lord, Job is brought up as a perfect and upright man that fears God and hates evil. Satan questions this, pointing to God’s blessing of Job as to why his trust in God is strong, having not been tested. Satan tells the Lord that cursing all that he has will cause him to curse God. So God gives all that Job has over to Satan’s control except Job’s life. Job’s life then begins to fall apart, losing family, wealth, friends and health. Yet through it all Job remained steadfast, although in great grief and tribulation, keeping his trust in God. We too are exhorted to be patient until the coming of the Lord, being happy to endure as with the patience of Job knowing the Lord is merciful. James 5:7-12
God promised Abraham that through his seed Isaac, his people would be called, Genesis 21:12 | Hebrews 11:17-19, a great people numbering like the stars would be born of him. Genesis 22:15-18 God tried Abraham’s faith by asking him to offer his only son as a sacrifice. Genesis 22:1-3 In so doing he also provided a foreshadow for His future offering of His only Son that would willingly die for the sins of the world. Abraham passed this test, having faith that God meant what He said and that God would raise him up again to keep His promise to Abraham. In a show of faith and another foreshadow, Abraham tells Isaac that God will provide Himself a lamb. Indeed Abraham was stopped from sacrificing Isaac, who's seed did grow into the nation of Israel. And ultimately God did provide Himself a Lamb both then in place of Isaac and in place of you and I, in the Lamb of God, God’s only Son, who took away the sins of the world.
Exodus and the Wilderness
God had a plan, from before time, to save fallen man from eternal separation from Himself. God doesn't just snap His fingers and make it happen, He brings it about over generations, teaching mankind in the process and incorporating the faithful in it. We all ultimately come from Adam and Israel was a peculiar people chosen from amongst the earth by the faith of Abraham finding favor with God. Through history God strove with this people to mold them and have them follow statutes that would ultimately foreshadow many of the fulfillments in Christ that would bring about our redemption.
A strong use of the idea of putting to proof, or testing hearkens back to Israel in Egypt and the wilderness, how they did not believe God, hardening their hearts. They also tempted God, who responded with signs and wonders and miracles to provide for them, yet they continued to murmur and forget, looking back with longing to the captivity they were saved from. They had lived generations in Egypt, intermingled and then enslaved. Their exodus from that slavery was the time when God was molding them, showing through miracles His power to purge this idolotry they were in to bring them to a close relationship with Him.
There are many references to the temptations, signs and wonders in Egypt God showed. This is used by Moses to refer back to the testing (G3986 peirasmos - temptation) of Pharaoh and the resulting 10 plagues. Deuteronomy 4:34 | Deuteronomy 7:19 | Deuteronomy 29:3 God expected that by all the signs and wonders in Egypt that Israel would trust Him in the wilderness to deliver them, but they showed time and time again that they had no patience for God’s ways and desired the fulfillment of the lusts of their flesh as they had back in Egypt where they had plentiful meat and drink. Psalm 106:14
Israel murmured in the wilderness yet God provided for them, often angered at their lack of faith given all they had seen and experienced. Psalm 78:41 | Psalm 95:8-9 | Hebrews 3:8-9
Three days after crossing the Red Sea without water, the people murmured against Moses at Marah because the water was bitter. Moses cried to the Lord and He showed him a tree whose branch he cast into the water making it sweet. Moses tested the people there, saying if they will harken to the voice of God and do what is right and keep all his statutes he will put none of the diseases on them that were brought on the Egyptians, for He is the Lord that heals them. Exodus 15:22-27
Two and a half months after leaving Egypt, Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron because they were hungry. They recalled the abundance of food they had in captivity, saying it would have been better to have died in Egypt than starve in the wilderness. The Lord tells Moses he will rain bread from heaven to try them, whether they will walk in His law or not. Exodus 16:4 On the 6th day they will gather twice as much as the first 5 days as on the 7th day there would be none and they were to observe the 7th day as a Sabbath day. Exodus 16
Israel tempted God many times in the wilderness, often because even though they had been provided for, shown miracles, signs and wonders, they still yearn to go back to captivity in Egypt where they had more to eat than the manna they now lived on. Over 2 years after leaving Egypt, Israel leaves Sinai and at Taberah Israel complained and the Lord’s anger was kindled and the fire of the Lord burnt among them and consumed those in the uttermost parts of the camp. Moses prayed to the Lord and the fire was quenched. Numbers 11:1-6
After leaving the wilderness of Sin Israel pitched in Rephidim and the people complained having no water, again looking back to the captivity in Egypt lusting after the water they had there. God tells Moses to strike the rock in Horeb and water is provided. Moses called this place Massah, and Meribah, because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they tempted the Lord saying, “Is the Lord among us or not?” Exodus 17:1-7 Moses striking the rock which produced water was also a prophetic foreshadow of the rock which is Christ being struck and giving living water through that sacrifice. 1 Corinthians 10:1-6 It may be that Moses later striking the rock to produce water again instead of speaking to the rock, symbolizing the relationship with Christ after the resurrection, and breaking that foreshadow is the reason why he would not enter the Promised Land. Numbers 20:8-13
The people complained having no meat so God says he will provide so much meat they will detest it. While Moses doubts how this could be, God states he will see whether His word will come to pass. The Lord causes a wind from the sea to bring quail a days journey on either side of the camp two cubits high. They gathered and ate, but the wrath of God was kindled against them and a great plague killed many people that lusted [covet, greedy, crave] after the meat and they named that place Kibrothhattaavah where they buried those people. Numbers 11:10-15; 31-35
Israel in the Promised Land
When Israel arrived at the Promised Land, 12 spies were sent out to get the lay of the land for 40 days. They came back with a report of a fruitful land, but also great walled cities and giants. Israel responds by saying it would be better to return to Egypt and looked to appoint a new leader to do just that. Moses, Aaron and only 2 of the 12 spies, Joshua and Caleb, had faith in the promise God gave that they would take the land. As Israel looks to stone them, the glory of the Lord appears in the tabernacle and Moses, knowing the anger the Lord has at this, pleads for his people.
The Lord pardoned Israel, but declared because all those men that saw His glory and miracles in Egypt and the wilderness and tempted the Lord 10 times had not hearkened to his voice and they wouldn’t see the Promised Land. But Caleb will enter the land and his seed inherit it. And so Israel wandered for 40 years in the wilderness for their lack of faith.
After the generation of Joshua had passed, the generation after them living in their inheritance had forgotten the Lord and the things done in Egypt and the wilderness. This generation began serving other gods, forsaking the God that delivered them from Egypt. So God did not drive out all the nations, leaving the Philistines, Canaanites, Sidonians, and the Hivites to test Israel, whether they would obey His commandments. However Israel mingled with them instead, marrying into these nations and worshipping their gods. Judges 3:1-5
If I were to try and sum up these historical occurrences of temptation and trials, it would be that the weakness of the flesh took precedence over faith in the Word of God. Whether food, water, security, or returning back to other false gods; Israel tempted God as He tried and tested their faith in Him and even though God continued to provide for them, it just wasn’t immediate enough or in the right form for them.
Trying And Testing
In Judges 6, Gideon is approached by an angel who says the Lord is with him and will use him to deliver Israel from the Midianites. Gideon has a hard time believing because his family is poor and he is the least in his father’s house. The Lord promises He is with him. Gideon asks for a sign and brings an offering to the Lord, which is consumed. Gideon asks God if, as He had said, God will save Israel by his hand. He first asks that God make a wool fleece on the floor full of dew in the morning and the ground dry. God did this and Gideon humbly asks God to prove this is true by asking for the dew to be on the ground and not the wool fleece the next morning and it was so. Judges 6:39
Admonition for Today
We have the benefit of learning from the mistakes of Israel and the examples of those of great faith from the past and Yeshua Himself. 1 Corinthians 10:1-13 speaks to this exact thing, admonishing believers to not fall into idolatry and lusting after evil things, tempting Christ.
1 Corinthians 10:11-13
The parable of the sower is found in Matthew 13:1-23, Mark 4:1-20 and Luke 8:4-15. A sower sows his seed and some is eaten by birds, some fell on rock and sprung up but quickly whithered away, some fell in thorns and were choked out while some fell on good ground and bore fruit. After telling this parable to the crowds, Yeshua yells, “He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.” This familiar phrase hearkens back to the seven churches and indeed the interpretation of one of these places the seed is sown seems to be exactly what the faithful church of Philadelphia is promised to be saved from.
We’re told to rejoice in our temptations.
Deception with signs and wonders is not new, where do these point? If it is not Christ then these temptations are to lead you away from the one True God. We will be put to proof both now and in the future.
Throughout history and continuing today, Christians around the world are in a time of temptation, tested whether they value their temporal physical life and the things of this world over their eternal inheritance through the promise of God to eternal life through Yeshua. It is often those most persecuted shine the brightest, showing their faith through great tribulation, a testament to their faith.
History and the Future Meet
I believe looking at the historical context of temptations and putting to proof give us stronger understanding of what the temptation the faithful church will be kept from.
In context of the church of the day it speaks to the synagogue of Satan who say they are Jews but are not. These are the hypocrites Yeshua railed against with the scribes and Pharisees. Matthew 15:1-9 | Mark 7:1-13 | Matthew 16:1-4 | Matthew 22:15-22 | Matthew 23:1-39 | Matthew 24:36-51 | Luke 11:37-54 In the context of the spiritual church, let there be no doubt that the church has its share of hypocrites just as the Jewish synagogues of those days and both Jew and Gentile today, and in the future, will struggle with this hypocrisy. However, to those who keep God’s Word and belief that Yeshua is the only way to the Father and the door for the sheep, that door will not be shut. John 10:1-11 | John 14:6
To get the context of the timing of this temptation, I think it is an important point to recognize that beyond the letters to the seven churches being for everyone, the fact that this is affecting all them that dwell on the earth places it in a larger context than the historical church and this is why I believe this is a future promise to the spiritual church that may not have a lot of strength, but keeps God’s word and never denies Yeshua.
I’m also lead to believe that since this trying time of temptation is global that the thing that is tempting a falling away from God will be global as well. From scripture we know there is a time coming where a man of sin will arise and stand as an idol in a rebuilt temple demanding worship. Furthermore, limitations to buying and selling will be imposed on those who do not worship him, and ultimately death for many. However, we must also remember that our gathering to the Lord will be preceded by the falling away and revealing of this man of sin who will demand worship and murder the faithful. 2 Thessalonians 2:1-4
So how does all this make sense then? How is the church kept from this global temptation that will try their faith yet aren’t taken before the revealing of the antichrist? I believe the answer brings together a lot of individual studies and highly recommend taking a Biblical topical word study approach as I did when starting my Acts 17:11 journey. It really helps to define the terms by themselves first before bringing them all together.
Time of Jacob’s Trouble
There are a collection of scriptures about the time of the end which give an exact number of days between events, they provide a framework of events that will take place during the 70th week of Daniel. Yeshua, in the Olivet discourse, points to this week of years spoken of by Daniel the prophet. Daniel 9:27 This central event they both speak of is the abomination of desolation. Daniel states that these weeks of years are “determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city,” meaning Israel and Jerusalem. Yeshua says when this event is seen that “them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains.” Please note the people and place this is time is speaking of.
All three of these passages tie the yet future abomination of desolation to an unparalleled time of tribulation in all of history for Israel in Judea specifically that is cut short. This is the start of the time of great tribulation, but specifically this time immediately after the abomination of desolation is the time of Jacob’s trouble in Judea. It is critical to understand that the time of great tribulation is the time of the antichrist’s reign split into two parts, which we will see in a minute.
Daniel 12:1 is just after the wars of the antichrist in chapter 11, Michael stands up and then unparalleled trouble matching the unparalleled time Yeshua spoke of pointing back to Daniel 9:27. I do not think that Michael’s mention is a coincidence as in 2 Thessalonians 2:6-12 we are told that the restrainer is holding back the revealing of the man of sin and that revealing is done at the abomination of desolation. This is where I believe the key to understanding the nuance of this time comes in.
Revelation 12:7-9; 12-13
So when Michael stands up in Daniel 12:1, it would seem his restraining of the revealing of the man of sin coincides with the dragon being cast down to give the beast his power, seat and great authority, reavealing him to be the antichrist. This marks the beginning of the time of Jacob’s trouble as Revelation 12:13 shows when he’s cast out he goes after the woman, Israel.
Recall Jeremiah 30:7, Daniel 12:1 and Matthew 24:22. This unparalleled time of trouble for Jacob would be cut short for the elect’s sake and everyone found in the book would be delivered from this time. This would appear to be exactly what is happening in the passage above, although the dragon persecutes Israel when cast down at the abomination of desolation, Israel is saved out of this period of time and protected for 3 1/2 years from the serpent.
I believe this can be taken two ways, but both I believe relate to the time of Jacob’s trouble.
One perspective that I held for some time was that some outside force or a sudden revealing of malice toward Israel at the abomination would lead to the death of 2/3 of Israel while 1/3 would be protected during the wrath of God, refined through fire. 2 Peter 3:5-7 This is typically what a Roman or Islamic antichrist perspective might think.
A newer perspective for me takes into account the idea of a Jewish antichrist, as laid out in Chris White’s book False Christ. It could also be that the 2/3 that are cut off and die speaks to the symbolic idea of the natural and wild branches of Romans 11:16-25. If indeed the man of sin comes in his own name, John 5:43, to supplant Christ with God’s people Israel, and 2/3 are deceived and believe, they would effectively be natural branches cut off and the very instrument the dragon uses to attack their own people at the abomination of desolation. If the Jews truly believe the antichrist is the Messiah they’ve waited for, is it difficult to imagine the religious fervor in light of the lying signs and wonders that will be done?
Regardless, I believe a remnant of Israel will be protected in the wilderness for 3 1/2 years from the dragon. This is where I believe the transition from Israel in Judea, the time of Jacob’s trouble ends and the time of great tribulation spreads to the whole earth.
I believe Revelation 12:13-17 is the key to understanding the nuanced nature of the time of great tribulation. We saw when the dragon is cast to the earth starting the unparalleled time of Jacob’s trouble for Israel and Judea at the abomination of desolation. Now the target of that unparalleled time of Jacob’s trouble has been removed to safety and the unparalleled tribulation has been cut short, but the dragon is not giving up and his focus turns outside of Judea to the Jews and Christians throughout the world.
Given that we know the dragon, beast and false prophet are given power over the earth for 3½ years, it’s not that time that could be cut short because we’re given the length of time. Therefore, the time that is cut short would have to be the unparalleled time focused on Israel in Judea, which is only the beginning of the time of great tribulation that Israel is saved out of. Jeremiah 30:4-7
This is also where the framework comes into play, revealing the details of the timing of events and showing the season of our blessed hope.
Since Yeshua was speaking about this unparalleled time of Jacob’s trouble, it follows that when He says “Immediately after the tribulation of those days,” He is referring to some time immediately after the remnant of Israel from Judea is protected in the wilderness. He also ties this time immediately after to the sign of the sixth seal.
Immediately after the time of Jacob’s trouble when the signs of the sixth seal take place and the angels gather His elect, is this same reference is used many places in scripture referring to the wrath of God beginning. There is only the seventh seal, which is 1/2 hour of silence in heaven, before the seven trumpets are blown beginning the wrath of God. In addition, Revelation 7 is nestled in between the sixth seal ending the previous chapter and the seventh seal and trumpets in the next chapter. We know it belongs here sequentially because Revelation 7:1-3 explicitly tells the angels with the trumpets not to blow until the 144,000 are sealed. What chapter 7 describes is the depiction of two groups, one on the earth and one in heaven.
Revelation 7:4-8 depicts 144,000 of the 12 tribes of Israel. Because the wrath of God is put on hold until they are sealed, we know they are on the earth. We see in the 5th trumpet that those sealed are the only ones explicitly protected from that judgement. Revelation 9:1-6 This would be the remnant of Israel that escaped the dragon and is protected for 3 1/2 years from the dragon and refined through the fire of God’s wrath. We get further descriptions of these sealed in Revelation 14:1-5 that makes be believe these are pre/early teenage Jews from the 12 tribes, sealed, protected and a witness to the rest of the people protected in the wilderness.
Revelation 7:9-17 depicts an uncountable number of people from all nations clothed in white robes who have come out of great tribulation. Given my other studies on the pre-wrath catching away of the bride, I believe we are seeing the picture of the aftermath of the harpazo, or rapture, complete before the wrath of God is poured out on the earth starting in Revelation 8:2.
Exact Day Prophecies
So how long is “immediately after the tribulation of those days” exactly? While we can’t know the day or hour, because of the precision of scripture, we will know the season. Many of these exact day prophecies center around the abomination of desolation.
Note there are two periods of time listed here, 3 1/2 years (1,260 days) and 1,290 days. The 1,260 days speaks to the scattering the power of the holy people. We know this starts at the abomination of desolation. This is the time of great tribulation, the wrath of the dragon on God’s people, to the Jew first and then all that hold the testimony of Christ. Furthermore, we know that power is given to the antichrist for 42 months or 3 1/2 years.
And we know that reign of the antichrist ends when Christ returns in glory. Revelation 19:20 Likewise we are told the 1,290 days starts at the same time. Since both start at the abomination of desolation and Christ returns in glory 1,260 days after the abomination of desolation, what is the end event for the 1,290 days?
This is the same end-point in Daniel 9:24, which gives the scope of the whole 70 weeks of Daniel period. It ends with the sealing of the vision and the prophecy. This will be accomplished after Christ returns in glory and takes the kingdoms. After Lucifer is bound in the bottomless pit, then those who died during the last 3½ years under Lucifer’s rule will be resurrected as part of the first resurrection. Revelation 20:4-5 (more on the Scope of Daniel 12:11)
So from my perspective, the scope of these 1290 days begins at the abomination of desolation and ends wtih the end of the 70th week of Daniel, when the fulfillment of the wrath of God and Yeshua assuming His reign at His return.
So if we put all these together, we have a framework below where
Therefore since Israel is protected in the wilderness for the same time that the antichrist is reigning and the 70th week is dealing with Israel and the land, the end of the 1,290 days must be the end of the 70th week at which time Israel will emerge from the wilderness into the millennial kingdom, 30 days after the antichrist and false prophet are cast into the lake of fire and after the dragon is bound for 1,000 years. This means the abomination of desolation would be about 30 days before the exact middle of the 70th week and the protection of Israel, sealing of the 144,000, catching away of the bride, sixth seal and the beginning of the wrath of God would be at some unknown day and hour in the middle of the 70th week of Daniel.
There is currently no rebuilt temple, but from scripture it’s clear that one will be built in some form since the daily sacrifice will be stopped and this passage seems to imply a temple without an outer court, perhaps a deal to be struck that would place a smaller Jewish temple on the Temple Mount where the outer court that is left out would be where the Dome of the Rock is and therefore left out? As far as something to be watching for, this is definitely on the list.
Hour of Temptation
Bringing everything full circle, what is the hour of temptation that the faithful church is promised to be kept from? They have kept the word of His patience, they have run the race and kept the faith through trials and tribulations in the past. But there is going to be a time where the ability to buy or sell will be taken away from anyone who will not bow down and worship the antichrist. Revelation 13:13-17 Life will become significantly harder at this time and the world will be a dystopian nightmare for anyone who refuses to get the mark. Refusal to do so is a death sentance for the physical body, but capitulation and worship is a death sentance for the eternal soul. Revelation 14:9-13 | Revelation 16:2 | Revelation 19:20 Those going through this time will be tried severely and many will fail, having little faith and wanting rather to preserve their temporary physical life, wealth, etc. These are the seeds that were sown in the rocks.
As laid out above, the exact day prophecies lay out the nuance of the time of Jacob’s trouble and the rest of the time of great tribulation and how the events Yeshua described linking the abomination of desolation, unparalleled tribulation, sixth seal and the coming of the Son of Man with other passages and the Revelation event sequence. All together we can see that the hour of temptation the faithful church will be kept from is the wrath of the dragon, from which we will be removed prior to that spreading globally and with the intensity of the mark of the beast and other events depicted later in his 3 1/2 year reign.
Does this mean we won’t face tribulation and a putting to proof of our faith? Of course not, but rather we can see the promises of God clearly laid out in His Word, revealed by His Holy Spirit to those that love Him. A comfort to the faithful in the knowledge that we are His friends and He has revealed by His Word that we will not be in darkness regarding what is coming. May this build your faith as you continue to walk in fellowship with Yeshua by His Spirit in Truth.
2 Corinthians 4:1-12
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